Johnson Diversey Hygiene Products}

Johnson Diversey Hygiene Products


Jhon Cena

It is important to maintain a high standard of hygiene in our day to day lives, not only for the more obvious reasons such as the prevention of bacterial infections and the spread of disease, but also in order to improve our personal appearance. Johnson Diversey is an internationally recognized provider of hygiene products and office cleaning supplies, designed to promote healthy living and maintain hygiene standards at optimum levels.

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Johnson Diversey markets a wide range of well-known home and office cleaning supplies, including Windex, Vanish, Pledge, and Mr. Muscle. Johnson Diversey also manufactures a large variety of feminine hygiene products such as Dove and Pearl White, in addition to their range of insecticides, air fresheners, and grease removers, all of which are used in over 170 countries across the globe in the interest of hygiene maintenance.

When confronted with the task of cleaning up a random spill, disposable napkins are usually first on the list of possible office cleaning supplies one would reach for, but how does one go about making an informed decision about which kind of disposable napkins to purchase? Such a decision should be based on factors such as size and the level of absorbency displayed by the napkins.

Johnson Diversey offers disposable napkins from their range of eco friendly hygiene supplies. These disposable napkins are highly absorbent and can wipe up most domestic spills without much napkin consumption, so when pondering which brand of napkins to purchase, one can consider Johnson Diversey as a alternative to conventional napkin brands. Additionally, since Johnson Diversey napkins are eco friendly hygiene supplies, the environmental impact associated with their manufacturing is minimal. Johnson Diversey napkins are fully recyclable.

Dove is one of Johnson Diversey’s best-selling feminine hygiene products, and includes a variety of soaps, shampoos, and shower gels designed to improve personal hygiene, keeping skin and hair healthy. Pest removal is another deciding factor in the pursuit of hygiene, as well as an important process in maintaining a pleasant and safe environment. For this reason, Johnson Diversey is also deeply involved in the insecticide market, offering products such as the Raid Commercial Flying Insect killer, which is extremely effective in the removal of flies, mosquitoes, moths, gnats, and other annoying or potentially harmful insects. All in all, trying to maintain a high standard of hygiene in our daily lives is something we should all put an effort into in order to keep our communities and households healthy and safe to live in.

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World’s biggest polluters won’t cut back on fossil fuel

Thursday, January 12, 2006

Six of the world’s major polluters, who participated in this week’s Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (AP6 or APPCDC), have launched a multi-million dollar fund to develop clean-energy, but stressed they will be heavily reliant on polluting fossil-fuels for generations to come.

Green groups, labelling the talks a sham, have condemned the climate talks which were held in Sydney, Australia as a “coal and nuclear pact” between the big polluters and fossil-fuel firms. Australian climate change observers have attacked the AP6 outcomes as grossly irresponsible, saying the Federal Government is willing to accept the reality of runaway climate change.

A communique released by the AP6 states: “We recognise that fossil fuels underpin our economies, and will be an enduring reality for our lifetimes and beyond” – the document said. Green groups say the pact has missed a vital opportunity to commit to renewable energy sources. They say the two-day meeting failed to make any serious commitments in combatting global warming.

Combined, the United States, China, Japan, India, South Korea and Australia, account for around half the globe’s greenhouse gases. The six countries set up the summit as an ulterior method of tackling global warming outside the Kyoto Protocol by, they say, focussing on “clean-energy technology.”

Nuclear Power, clean coal technologies, geosequestration and industry-driven environment funds were some of the proposals raised at the summit. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol the six nations have not set any targets to cut greenhouse gases.

Climate change observers have broadly criticised the AP6 as a waste of time. Australian Climate Institute’s Clive Hamilton says the meeting did little to cut greenhouse gas emissions. “I think really this conference is about trying to protect the long-term future of the coal industry,” he said. “If you look at the sort of business people who have a seat at the table at the conference in Sydney, they overwhelmingly represent the polluting industries rather than those that will at some time in the future replace them – the renewable energy and energy efficiency industries.”

CSIRO chief scientist Dr David Brockway says the technology required to reduce greenhouse emissions is not viable for industry.

“It has to be borne in mind that anything we are going to do to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and intensity from the Australian economy will come at a cost,” he said. “What we are doing at the moment is doing research to try and reduce the size of that additional cost. I would say in a five to 10 year timeframe a number of these technologies will become viable.”

An AP6 communique issued at the end of the conference said reductions in greenhouse gases must be achieved without hindering economic growth – “the partnership aims to mobilise domestic and foreign investment into clean and low-emission technology by fostering the best possible enabling environments,” it states. Some of the world’s big mining and energy firms attended the talks and pledged to improve efficiency.

Green groups, who were left out of the conference, say the talks were aimed at subverting Kyoto – which obligates some 40 developed countries to cut greenhouse emissions by 5 percent below 1990 levels during 2008-2012. “Basically, they haven’t agreed to do anything in terms of serious commitment,” said Monash University climate change expert Professor Amanda Lynch. The United States and Australia refuse to sign Kyoto claiming its mandatory greenhouse gas cuts would threaten economic growth.

Australian Prime Minister John Howard said, “experience has taught us that seeking arbitrary targets doesn’t result in achieving practical solutions to global climate change.” Mr Howard stressed the importance of maintaining economic growth to alleviate poverty, while cutting greenhouse emissions.

He said the summit had injected “an overdue dose of realism into the debate about climate change. We believe it is possible to tackle issues of greenhouse gas emissions and the challenge of climate change without reducing living standards,” he said. “The world will go on using fossil fuels for many years into the future because it’s more economic to do so. So therefore it’s elementary commonsense that you should try and make the use of fossil fuels more greenhouse gas sensitive, you should try and clean up the use of fossil fuel,” he said.

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have dismissed Mr Howard’s comments as misleading and irresponsible. The WWF’s chief executive Greg Bourne said, “in my whole business career, I have never seen a more misleading public statement as that… If the statements made today become a reality, this will lock us in to a four-degree rise in global average temperatures, when two-degrees is considered extremely dangerous,” he said. “There couldn’t be anything more irresponsible than to knowingly embark on a path towards massive increases in emissions and runaway global warming.”

The AP6 nations said in the final communique that the eight public/private partnership taskforces created at the conference, will draw up action plans by the middle of 2006 on issues including renewable energy, power generation, cleaner fossil fuels and coal mining.

Environmentalists said the Sydney pact was doomed to fail because it did not impose targets on its members which comprise nearly half of humanity. The New South Wales Nature Conservation Council said the group’s voluntary approach was a “licence for government and business to do nothing”. “Without any incentives or penalties there is no reason for industry to move away from burning polluting coal and oil,” said the council’s Cate Faehrmann.

The AP6 countries encompass: 49 per cent of world GDP; 48 per cent of the world energy consumption; 48 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions; and 45 per cent of the world’s population.

Many scientists say global warming is melting glaciers, raising sea levels and will cause more intense storms, droughts and floods. Current levels of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere are higher now than at any time in the past 650,000 years, research from Antarctic ice cores shows.

Australian government commits AU$60 million to cut greenhouse emissions

Wednesday, November 1, 2006

In response to the Stern Report, Australia’s Prime Minister John Howard announced AU$60 million to fight climate change, on 42 projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The projects are part of the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate.

“The Asia-Pacific Partnership includes countries that represent about half of the world’s emissions, energy use, GDP (gross domestic product) and population, and is an important initiative that engages, for the first time, the key greenhouse-gas emitting countries in the Asia-Pacific region,” Mr Howard said in a statement.

Howard told the audience at the CSIRO’s Ensis, a research and development organisation for the forestry industry, the government was taking practical steps to lower greenhouse gas emissions and symbolism would not clean up the air.

“Symbolism will not reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Practical methods will and that is what I’m interested in…The thing that matters is doing things” he said.

More than half the money is going to projects to develop clean coal technology, including $8 million for a mobile carbon catcher for coal-fired power stations.

$17.5 million will be spent on renewable energy projects, including high efficiency solar power stations and solar-enhanced transport fuels.

$11 million will be spent on coal mining. $6 million will be spent on improving energy efficiency of appliances and buildings, and AU$2.5 million will be used to help the aluminium industry reduce emissions.

Howard dismissed as “pure speculation” the Stern Report’s more alarmist projections.

“Talk about hot air. There’s an enormous amount of hot air on this issue,” Howard says “what we need are measures which actually achieve results.” and that his announcement will achieve results.

Overview Of The Terminated Merchant File List

Submitted by: Frank Lucer

When you apply for a new credit card, the issuing bank will check your credit report to determine their potential risk. If your report is “clean” and your score represents an acceptable credit risk to the issuing bank, they’ll establish an account for you. On the other hand, if you have violated the terms of an issuing bank’s agreement in the past (i.e. failure to pay, fraud, etc.), your credit report will provide details which warn other creditors.

Acquiring banks which provide merchant accounts use a similar system. Rather than relying upon a credit report, they use the Terminated Merchant File (also known as TMF or MATCH). If your business is listed on the TMF, opening a new merchant account will be problematic.

In this article, we’ll describe a few reasons why businesses often find themselves listed. We’ll also provide useful advice for getting your name off the list and avoiding being placed upon in the future.

Possible Ways To Make The List

There are several reasons for which your company may be placed on the TMF. Unfortunately, not all of them are within your control. For example, fraudulent activity is one of the most common reasons businesses are placed on the list. If you fail to deliver products that your customers have purchased, they will complain. Multiple complaints to your acquiring bank may result in the termination of your payment processing privileges. In those privileges are revoked, the acquirer must add your name to the TMF.

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But, fraudulent activity can also occur due to lack of security and fraud controls when you process payments for your customers. This often leads to chargebacks. If your company receives too many chargebacks, your acquirer will terminate your merchant account and place you on the TMF.

You can also be listed if you fail to comply with your acquirer’s agreement, deposit counterfeit sales, or if you owe money to a former merchant account provider.

How To Remove Your Name

If your company’s name is listed on the TMF, you’ll need to contact the acquiring bank that placed it there in order to have it removed. It’s worth noting that most acquirers will refuse to submit a removal request on your behalf unless the original listing was made in error. That said, if an error was made, the acquirer is required to submit a correction to MasterCard International.

How To Avoid Being “Listed”

Because being placed on the Terminated Merchant File can create severe problems for your business, you should do everything you can in order to avoid being listed. Try to resolve all customer grievances as quickly as possible. That will prevent them from escalating into complaints and chargebacks.

If you haven’t already done so, integrate robust fraud controls in order to protect your customers’ information while processing payments. Monitor sales activity closely to identify transactions which appear suspicious. Finally, communicate with your merchant account provider when you expect your sales volume will exceed the limit for which your business is authorized.

Steering Clear And Growing Your Business

Your acquiring bank is held accountable for your payment processing activity. That’s why they will react swiftly to terminate your account and place your company on the TMF if they detect fraud, agreement violations, or too many chargebacks. Understand your acquiring bank’s perspective and communicate openly with them. By doing so, you can avoid problems and keep your name from being placed on the Terminated Merchant File.

Being able to process debit and credit card payments for your customers is an irreplaceable advantage. Don’t run the risk of losing that privilege by being listed on the TMF.

About the Author: This article is brought to you by PaySimple, a leading provider of

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Plants on other planets may not be green

Thursday, April 12, 2007

On Wednesday, NASA scientists said that, unlike green plants on the planet Earth, plants on other planets may be the color red or yellow.

Plants on Earth are green because they contain chlorophyll. The chlorophyll appears green because it absorbs mainly blue and red light in order to produce food for the plant via photosynthesis, while reflecting the green light frequency.

Scientists at NASA point out that if the stars for other planets were in a different state than our sun and if the light frequency that reached the planets’ surface was different, then the plants on those planets would have also evolved a different type of photosynthetic pigment other than chlorophyll. This pigment would be dedicated towards the different light frequencies received by the planet causing the plant to appear a different color from green such as red and yellow.

Carl Pilcher, director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute, said, “This work broadens our understanding of how life may be detected on Earth-like planets around other stars, while simultaneously improving our understanding of life on Earth. This approach–studying Earth life to guide our search for life on other worlds–is the essence of astrobiology.”

The research into the color of plants on other planets was started by California Institute of Technology astrobiologist Vikki Meadows and a host of other scientists who were studying how light is absorbed and reflected by plants and some bacteria on Earth. Using this data, a computer model was designed to predict the color of plants and bacteria on other planets.

Nancy Kiang, a biometeorologist at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, noted that it was unlikely any of the plants would be the color blue, “It appears that harvesting blue light is very common across the board for photosynthetic organisms. I think it is unlikely that anything will be blue.”

NASA’s Phoenix spacecraft lands safely on Mars

Monday, May 26, 2008

NASA’s Phoenix spacecraft has landed safely on Mars, following a ten-month flight. Landing occurred yesterday evening at around 23:38 GMT (20:38 EDT), with confirmation being received by flight controllers around fifteen minutes later at 23:53, the communications delay due to the time taken for light and radio signals to travel from Mars back to Earth.

Phoenix was launched atop a Delta II rocket last August. It is the first Mars Scout spacecraft to be sent to explore Mars. It will search for water and complex molecules at the North Pole of Mars. It is the third spacecraft currently operating on Mars, joining the Mars Expedition Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, which are currently operating on the planet’s surface. Phoenix is expected to operate on the surface of Mars for 90 Martian days, about 92 Earth days.

Scientists monitoring the landing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California cheered as the news was transmitted by the spacecraft, saying it had landed safely.

According to the live broadcast on NASA TV, a systems check began in final preparation for landing at 22:20 GMT (7:20 p.m. eastern time) which was given the “all green”. At 22:22, Phoenix was confirmed to be properly aligned for entry into the Martian atmosphere. At 22:30 Phoenix began to accelerate into the atmosphere, where it will hurtle towards the planet at nearly 11,000 miles an hour. At 22:41 the data stream was successfully sent to Earth, Phoenix successfully separated from its boosters and sent a UHF signal to NASA. At 22:44 its main radio was confirmed to be on.

Scientists monitoring the MRO then confirmed the signal from Phoenix at 22:45. Approximately 3 minutes later Phoenix was confirmed to have entered the Martian atmosphere.

According to predictions before the landing – based on the sequence of events programmed into onboard computers – the cruise stage, which had controlled the spacecraft during its journey from Earth to Mars, separated from the probe which was to enter the atmosphere at 23:24:15 GMT. Entry interface occurred at 23:31:15, and the parachute deployed at 23:34:58. The heat shield was jettisoned at 23:35:13, followed by the rest of the “aeroshell”, which had protected the spacecraft during decent, and the parachute, at 23:37:13. Landing itself occurred at 23:38:36 GMT.

During descent, the spacecraft’s progress was monitored by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, already in Areocentric orbit. Mars Odyssey was in contact with Phoenix throughout the descent, including during the phase of the descent where maximum temperatures were reached, when controllers had predicted that data would be lost. The HiRISE camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was able to photograph Phoenix under its parachute during descent.

Phoenix’s goal is to gather environmental information about Mars to search for possible locations for the best signs of microbial life in the soil. It will also research the history of water on Mars. The mission is scheduled to last for at least 92 Earth days, or 90 Martian days.

The spacecraft landed in an area near the North Pole of Mars, unofficially named the Green Valley. It is an area about 250 kilometres wide, located in the Vastitas Borealis plains.

Phoenix is carrying a number of instruments to investigate Mars. Some of these were taken from the cancelled 2001 Mars Surveyor lander, and some others were derived from instruments flown on the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) spacecraft. MPL was launched in January 1999, but failed during its descent to the Martian surface. Landing on Mars is considered to be one of the most difficult challenges in space exploration, and one scientist working on today’s landing said that “this is not a trip to Grandma’s for the weekend”. More than half of previous missions to Mars have failed, leading to jokes that exploration of the planet is cursed.

This is the 38th spacecraft to be launched to Mars, and the 19th to arrive successfully, bringing the success rate to exactly 50 percent. It is also the 12th spacecraft to attempt a landing on Mars, and the 7th to successfully accomplish this.

Upon confirmation of landing, a flight controller was heard to exclaim “The Phoenix has landed, welcome to Vastitas Borealis!”, whilst others cheered, and congratulated each other on the successful landing.

Project Management Life Cycles}

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Submitted by: Laurus Nobilis

In contemporary world, the pace of changes is forcing every organization to change and evolve. The process of change management can not be done without the structured approach through the project management

Project Management is a management routine that is used to plan, organize and control project activities. The project is initiated by executive committee that will initiate the activities. Usually, the executive committee is the top management of the company. The executive committee is assigning the Project Leader. The whole activity is being delegated to the leader, who is responsible for the project, budget, resources, activities and results. The committee approves the plans and monitor the performance. In specific situations the executive committee is changing, prioritizing or terminating projects.

The project management requires establishment of project team with clear roles and responsibilities. Usual structure of team have following positions:

The Executive Sponsor is authorized to represent the Executive Committee on matters related to the Project Management. The Executive Sponsor is accountable to interface with Executive Committee and team.

The Project Leader has the authority to manage and complete the assigned activities and change management. The leader is responsible for the definition of the objectives, tasks, organization of activities, and budgets control. The Leader requests an assignment of people from different functions to form the team. Committee members with the Project Leader to define work, activities, schedules and budgets required to accomplish the project objective.

Project Team members are responsible to execute planned work activities, respective to their filed of expertise. They are responsible to deliver the quality, schedule and budget targets, and to support the overall objectives. They need to serve the team members in a collaborative and supportive manner. Team members shall be authorized by their functional management to make commitments in the design of activities, time and cost estimate.

The composition of the team must be approved by the Executive Committee, based on proposal of Project Leader. The leader forms a team composed of appointees from the respective departments. The team members will be committed through full time or part-time engagement. Once when the team is formed, the project can be initiated.

There are 5 stages of project development within its life cycle.

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1. Initial Phase

2. Planning

3. Execution

4. Monitoring and Control Phase

5. Closeout Phase

Successful finalization of project require sufficient expertise from areas of technical skills and project management. Around 70% of effects comes from the knowledge of project management.

Projects can be classified based on duration and magnitude of their effects. Classification is necessary in order to assess resources that are required for project development.

Based on duration they can be:

Small Project Duration – less than 1 month

Medium Project Duration – less than 1 quarter

Large Project Duration more – than 1 year

The duration of the project is determined by its complexity. The classification of project is the indication for the level of authority of the project manager and executive committee. For Example, major upgrade of business operation requires general management team to be involved as executive committee. Project manager should be manager from middle or top management. Duration of the project can be one year.

Project should be evaluated from several aspects. Cost/benefit analysis, the time value of money, and risk are components of many financial methods that are used to evaluate a project. Some of the methods are:

Simple Payback

Average Return on Investment

Net Present Value

Internal Rate of Return

Every method has it application. Before that, it is necessary to to define the time value of money and the present value of future payments to better understand the formulas.

The knowledge and discipline of the project management execution is the key factor of success of change management and transition to the different layout of the company.

About the Author:

Project Management


Change Management

are some of the topics covered by the

Biz Development

site dedicated to development of managerial knowledge and skills.


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24 error messages sent by Flight 447

Saturday, June 6, 2009

French authorities have today revealed that Air France Flight 447 sent 24 error messages shortly before the plane disappeared during the flight between Rio de Janeiro and Paris with 228 people on board. They also said that the plane’s auto-pilot was not active, although they say that from the error messages it is impossible to determine the reason for it being inactive. The crash is said to be the world’s worst aviation disaster since 2001.

Officials have still not determined the reason for the flight’s disappearance or located the wreckage of the plane, but have said that it was flying through an area of “powerful cumulo-nimbus” clouds. The authorities continued saying, “these are found frequently in this area and in normal climactic [sic] conditions”. However other meteorologists said the jet was entering a zone with unusual storms and 100mph updrafts which could have formed a vacuum, sucking water up from the ocean.

Fourteen of the error messages sent by the system were done so within a period of one minute, 2:10 a.m. – 2:11 a.m. UTC. It is thought that some of the error messages are related to the flight speed and controls related to auto thrust. Paul-Louis Arslanian, director of the French air accident investigation agency, said that the error messages indicated systems had shut down one after another. He also confirmed that the plane in question had encountered difficulties with measuring its speed and that Airbus was currently completing “a programme of replacement, of improvement”.

Airbus and Arslanian insist that planes are still safe, however Airbus have since re-sent information regarding difficulties with calculating speed and confirming their advice in such situations.

Previous announcements by the Brazilian air force that they had successfully located part of the wreckage of flight 447 have turned out to be false after ships recovered unrelated debris from the sea. After recovering debris from the sea, including a cargo pallet and two buoys, Brigadier Ramon Cardoso, the director of Brazilian air traffic control said, “[U]p to now, no material from the plane has been recovered.”

He continued, “We confirm that the pallet found is not part of the debris of the plane. It’s a pallet that was in the area, but considered more to be trash. The pallet was made of wood, and the Air France Airbus A330 did not have any wooden pallets on board. That’s how we can confirm that the pallet isn’t part of the remains of the aircraft”. It is thought the pallet came from a passing ship which is also being blamed as to the reason for the oil slick spotted in the area.

David Learmount, operations and safety editor of Flight International magazine, said: “The fact that the autopilot was not working is not the cause of this accident”, continuing by saying it is “not at all unusual” for the autopilot to cut out, alerting the pilots with a loud warning, adding “it’s not the cause, it’s the symptom” of the accident.

He also said that it was “designed to cut out at any time that it receives conflicting messages, which we know it was” and that “It’s designed to cut out rather than controlling the airplane in an unsafe way – it’s not an intelligent system, it doesn’t know which of the data are correct.”

Rescuers have long since given up on attempting to find any survivors instead now trying to locate and recover the wreckage of the flight and more importantly the flight data recorders, without which they say they may never know what happened to the flight. The process of recovery is expected to be difficult with the seabed reaching depths of 3,000 to 4,000 meters. Both American and French specialist equipment has been sent to the area with the aim of recovering the recorders, however French officials say that the locator beacons attached to the boxes could possibly have become detached by the force of the impact.

Speculation has been rife as to the thought cause of the flights disappearance, ranging from a direct lightning strike to weather in the area, however recently a Spanish pilot has said, via his airline Air Comet, that on a flight in the area he saw an “intense flash of white light”. The report, initially released by the Spanish newspaper El Mundo and then confirmed by AFP also said a co-pilot and passenger also saw the bright light.

“Suddenly, we saw in the distance a strong and intense flash of white light, which followed a descending and vertical trajectory and which broke up in six seconds” the unidentified captain said.

Transrapid collision in Germany kills 23

Friday, September 22, 2006

Twenty-three people died when a Transrapid maglev train travelling on the system’s test track in Lathen in Germany, near the Netherlands border, collided with a maintenance vehicle on the track. Ten others were severely injured according to Karl-Heinz Brüggemann, a spokesman for the rescue effort.

The driverless train was estimated as operating at 170 km/h (105 mph) when the accident occurred around 09:30 local time (07:30 UTC). The unmanned train, with 31 passengers aboard crashed into a maintenance wagon containing 2 workers.

German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited the site to pay her respect to the victims and the rescuers.

The train had traveled about 1 km (0.6 miles) from its departure station when it struck the maintenance vehicle. Debris from the accident was spread over a 300 m (984 ft) section of track. Police spokesman Hans Kley confirmed that the Transrapid train did not leave the track, which is elevated approximately 5 metres (16 ft) above the ground. Other reports indicate that the train’s roof was torn off in the collision. Rescue workers used ladder trucks from local fire departments to evacuate the stopped train. On hearing of the accident, Germany’s Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee suspended his trip in China and made preparations to return to Germany to view the accident scene.

The 31.8 km (20 mile) test system in Germany was built by a consortium of Siemens AG and ThyssenKrupp. It has been in operation since 1984 and is regularly used by tour groups for demonstration runs four days per week. Transrapid trains are capable of speeds up to 450 km/h (280 mph). This accident is the first on the system that included fatalities; analysts so far attribute the cause of the accident to a lack of communications between the train operators and the maintenance employees. The only commercial installation of Transrapid technology in service is currently the Shanghai Maglev Train linking Shanghai Metro Line 2‘s Longyang Road station to Pudong International Airport.

White House considering auto rescue plan

Saturday, December 13, 2008

After a plan to bail out three large American auto companies failed to pass the Senate this week, the White House has said that it is considering using some of the US$700 billion earmarked to rescue the banking industry to bail out the automakers.

The White House says that the collapse of the automakers would be a terrible setback that could destroy the economy.

“Under normal economic conditions we would prefer that markets determine the ultimate fate of private firms. However, given the current weakened state of the US economy, we will consider other options if necessary – including use of the TARP [Troubled Assets Relief Program] programme – to prevent a collapse of troubled automakers,” said Dana Perino, the White House Press Secretary. “A precipitous collapse of this industry would have a severe impact on our economy, and it would be irresponsible to further weaken and destabilize our economy at this time.”

Earlier this week, the “Big Three” automakers – Ford, Chrysler, and General Motors – had pleaded before Congress to be given $14 billion in funds so as to prevent collapse. Although the House approved the measures, the Senate voted the proposition down with a vote of 52-35. Part of the failure of the bill to pass was due to disagreements over labour cuts, which the Republicans insisted reach parity by next year with those of Japanese carmakers.

General Motors stated that the company would stop 30% of its North American production “in response to rapidly deteriorating market conditions”.